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                                             The consecration ceremony (12. December 1929); from left:
                                             baksha Namajal Nimbushov (Paris), baksha Jamnin (Sandji) Umaldinov,
                                             getsul Sandji-Ragba Menykov, gelong Sandji Ignatov

A  find rising in France was organised 
and led by baksha Namajal Nimbushov
(1875-1944), spiritual head of Kalmyks
in Europe.
The Kalmyks belong to the Gelugpa ("Yellow Hat") order of Tibetan Buddhism. They were converted from their earlier Shamanistic beliefs to Lamanism shortly before they reached the Lower Volga area. Until the tragic exodus in 1771, the Kalmyks  were able to maintain direct contacts with Tibetan religious centers and many monks received advanced education in Tibetan lamaseries. The Dalai Lamas have always been recognized by the Kalmyks as their spiritual and religious authorities.
We see that their Buddhism is more close to Syncretism, which people believe that there is one God, there is  paradise and hell with traditional beliefs of Shamanism. There is some strong evidence that shamanism continues as part of the religious heritage. The Kalmyk are the only European Buddhist people.


TOC > The Opening ceremony > The consecration